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      智慧建筑體系---被動式房屋

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      智慧建筑體系---被動式房屋

      發布日期:2017-03-21 作者:臨潼科技 點擊:

      被動房屋意味著房屋基本不需要去主動供應能量,德國的被動房屋每年單位面積供熱能耗僅為15度電,遠遠低于目前德國的標準75度電。

      Passive housing means that the house does not need the energy supplyed directly.Germany's passive housing heating energy consumption is 15kw·h per unit area.and the data is far below the current German standard of 75kw·h.

      德國在上個世紀90年代末建立了第一個真正的被動房屋,目前,德國已有4000-6000單元房為被動房屋。

      The first real passive houses were established in Germany in the last century of 90s.at present, Germany has 4000-6000 units of passive housing.

      德國最早的被動房屋建于1999年,每戶為90平方米的三居室,主體為木質結構。此房屋建筑成本僅比普通房屋高7%,運行成本非常低,利用太陽能供熱,供電可自給自足,2004年全年一戶的供暖、供水、供電僅為114歐元。

      Germany's first passive housing was built in 1999, household has the three bedrooms with 90 square meters, the main structure of the wood. The cost of housing construction is only 7% higher than ordinary houses, operating costs are very low, the use of solar heating, power supply can be self-sufficient, in 2004 a year of heating, water supply, power supply are only 114 euros.

      中國現在被動房的發展勢頭非常猛,大江南北全國各地都有被動房建筑建造完成。被動房是德國被動房研究所研究探索出來的一整套低能耗建筑建造體系,當建筑物的節能設計達到一定水平,建筑能耗達到相應指標目標后,經過德國被動房研究所的認證頒證,然后可稱之為被動房。國內已經獲得過德國被動房研究所頒證的項有6處。

       Passive house development of passive house in china is very fierce, the passive houses are built all over the china. Passive house is a set of low energy buildings of German research explored passive housing construction system, building energy-saving design when reached a certain level, the building energy consumption to reach the corresponding target, through the study of the German passive house certification certification, then can be said to be real. The country has received six certifications of the German passive house.

      目前我國進行中的被動房項目大多是中德合作項目,但這并不代表中國被動房是德國的拷貝版。我國應該結合國情,吸取歐洲“被動房”建筑的經驗,走有中國特色的被動房建設之路。

      At present, China's passive housing projects in the majority of Sino German cooperation projects, but this does not mean that China is a copy of the German passive housing. Our country should combine the national conditions, draw lessons from the experience of the European "passive house" building, take the road of the passive house construction with Chinese characteristics.


      首先,要考慮我國不同地區的氣候特征?!氨粍臃俊弊畛醯脑O計原則和技術方法是以德國、奧地利等歐洲中部國家的氣候為依據。這些國家氣候相對溫和,地區氣候差異小。而我國幅員遼闊,橫跨多個氣候帶,不同氣候分區的氣候差異巨大,各地區的氣候特征以及對采暖和通風的要求不同。

      First, we should consider the climatic characteristics of different regions in china. The principle and technique of the "passive house" is based on the climate of the central European countries such as Germany and Austria. These countries are relatively mild climate, regional climate differences. However, China has a vast territory, and it has a wide range of climatic zones, and the climate difference is very different. 

      因此,德國被動房指標體系不可直接應用于我國,我國應針對不同氣候區的氣候特征編制不同的被動房指標體系。而從建筑類型來看,德國85%的居住建筑為三層及三層以下,而我國是以中高層住宅為主,這也是需要考慮的重要因素。其次,我國與歐洲國家文化上的差異也會影響到被動房建筑的設計。

      Therefore, the German passive housing index system can not be directly applied to China, China should be based on the climate characteristics of different climate zones to prepare different passive housing index system. From the perspective of the type of construction, 85% of the residential buildings in Germany for the three and below the level of three, while China is mainly in high-rise residential, which is also an important factor to consider. Secondly, the cultural differences between China and European countries will also affect the design of passive housing. 



      例如,我國的飲食方式對住宅廚房的要求和歐洲國家有很大不同,住宅中廚房產生的油煙和氣味通常需要通過自然通風或者抽油煙機及時排走,而被動房對建筑密閉性和室內換氣量卻有特定的要求。因此,如何在住宅設計中同時滿足節能和生活習慣的要求是一個需要綜合考慮的問題。另外,我國目前大多數住宅是市場化的,被動房建筑的收益和所增加的額外投資是否能夠平衡,從而被市場所接受,是影響被動房建筑能否順利推廣的關鍵。建筑材料占被動房建設成本的“大頭”,如果控制不好,房價就會大幅上漲。進口產品技術成熟,但價格高,通過科技研發讓建材實現本土化,成為必然選擇。我國在節能建筑的政策法規、規劃設計、建造施工以及建筑材料的研發生產上已具備一定基礎,盡可能采用本土的建筑材料和相關產品是降低建造成本的有效方式。

      For example, the kitchen requires our diet and European countries are very different, resulting in residential kitchen smoke and smell is usually required by the natural ventilation or lampblack discharged in time, and on the construction of passive housing tightness and indoor ventilation have specific requirements. Therefore, how to meet the requirements of energy saving and living habits in residential design is a problem that needs to be considered. In addition, most of China's current residential market, passive housing construction and the increase in the amount of additional investment can be balanced, which is accepted by the market, is the key to the success of the passive housing construction can promote. Building materials accounted for passive housing construction costs "big head", if the control is not good, prices will rise sharply. Imported products mature technology, but the price is high, through the development of science and technology so that the localization of building materials, has become an inevitable choice. Our country has a certain foundation in building energy conservation policies and regulations, planning and design, construction and building materials R & D and production, as far as possible the use of local building materials and related products is an effective way to reduce the construction cost.

      另外,被動房的產業支撐如高性能門窗、外墻外保溫體系、能源系統設備等建筑部品及設備,需要提升性能,延長使用壽命并降低價格,加快產業化與本土化進程,也是解決被動房發展的關鍵問題。

       In addition, the passive housing industry support such as high performance windows, exterior insulation system, energy system equipment construction parts and equipment, the need to improve the performance and prolong the service life and reduce the price, to speed up the process of industrialization and localization, but also solve the key problem of passive housing development.


      相關標簽:被動房

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